美语发音学习笔记

American Accent Training.jpg

American Accent Trainning

<small>Second Edition : Ann Cook</small>

图片 1

本节内容:阶梯语调(staircase intonation)

Read This First

① 、名词陈述句语调(Statement Intonation with Nouns)
语调或音高变化重点用来引入新音讯。
率先次表露一个陈述句,重音放在名词上。

Tense Vowels? Lax Vowels?

A tense vowel requires you to use a lot of facial muscles to
produce it.

If you say [ē], you must stretch your lips back; for [ū] you must
round your lips forward; for [ä] you drop your jaw down;for [æ] you
will drop your jaw far down and back; for [ā] bring your lips back and
drop your jaw a bit; for [ī] drop your jaw for the ah part of the
sound and pull it back up for the ee part; and for [ō] round the
lips, drop the jaw and pull back up into [ū]. An American [ō] is
really [ōū].

A lax vowel, you don’t need to move your face at all. You only
need to move the back of your tongue and your throat.

Under Lax Vowels, there are four reduced vowel sounds, starting with the
Greek letter epsilon [ε], pronounced eh; [i] pronounced ih, and
[ü] pronounced ü, which is a combination of ih and uh, and the
schwa, [ə], pronounced uh—the softest, most reduced, most relaxed
sound that we can produce. It is also the most common sound in
English
. The semivowels are the American R (pronounced er, which is
the schwa plus R) and the American L (which is the schwa plus L).


Dogs eat bones.png

Chapter 1 American Intonation

贰 、代词陈述句语调(Statement Intonation with Pronouns)
名词是新音信,而代词是旧音信。
虽然把刚刚名词陈述句中的名词换到代词,则把重音放在代词上。

American Intonation Do’s and Don’ts

  • Do Not Speak Word by Word
  • Connect Words to Form Sound Groups
  • Use Staircase Intonation

They eat them.png

What Exactly Is Staircase Intonation?

Americans tend to stretch out their sounds longer than you may think is
natural. So to lengthen your vowel sounds, put them on two stairsteps
instead of just one.

We  
/////  're  
/////  /////  he  
/////  /////  /////  re.  
/////  /////  /////  /////


    No  
    /////    ou  
    /////   /////  
    Standard American

When you have a word ending in an unvoiced consonant—one that you
“whisper” (t, k, s, x, f, sh)—you will notice that the preceding vowel
is said

quite quickly, and on a single stairstep. When a word ends in a vowel or
a voiced consonant—one that you “say” (b, d, g, z, v, zh, j), the

preceding vowel is said more slowly, and on a double stairstep.

    seat  
    //////  
    Unvoiced  


     see  
    /////   eed  
    /////   /////  
    Voiced  

③ 、陈述句和疑问句语调(Statement Versus Question Intonation)
原先大家在课本里学到疑问句的语调是稳中有升的。
但其实,疑问句的回升语调持续到句子结束从前,停止时进入1个神速下落的小阶梯。
同一语调情势的疑难句比陈述句语调上升得高级中学一年级些。

Statement Intonation with Nouns

Intonation or pitch change is primarily used to introduce new
information.
This means that when you are making a statement for the
first time, you will stress the nouns.

    Dogs        bones  
    /////  eat  /////  
    ///// ///// /////  

where is my car.png

Statement Intonation with Pronouns

When you replace the nouns with pronouns (i.e.,old information),
stress the verb.

            eat  
    They    /////  them  
    /////   /////  /////  

As we have seen, nouns are new information; pronouns are old
information. In a nutshell, these are the two basic intonation patterns:

    Dogs    bones.   
        eat  
    They    them.  

肆 、心绪或修辞疑问句语调(Emotional or Rhetorical Question
Intonation)
在心怀不安的情事中,语调回涨。
譬如说,质疑自身的车被偷了,下边那句话语调上涨。

Statement Versus Question Intonation

You may have learned at some point that questions have a rising
intonation. They do, but usually a question will step upward until the
very end,

where it takes one quick little downward step. A question rises a little
higher than a statement with the same intonation pattern.

“Here is my car.”

    Here                     cä  
    /////  is               /////   är?  
    /////  /////   my        /////   /////  
    /////  /////   /////    /////  /////  

“Where is my car?”

                             cä  
                             /////   är?  
    Where                   /////   /////  
    /////  is               /////   /////  
    /////  ////   my        /////   /////  
    /////  ////   /////     /////   /////  

emotional question.png

Emotional or Rhetorical Question Intonation

If you know that your car is parked outside, however, and someone
doesn’t see it and asks you where it is, you might think that it has
been stolen

and your emotion will show in your intonation as you repeat the
question. As your feelings rise in an emotional situation, your
intonation rises up

along with them.

“Where is my car?”

                              är?  
                    cä      /////  
Where               /////   /////  
/////  Is           /////   /////  
/////  ////   my    /////   /////  
/////  ////  /////  /////   /////  

“Why? Is it gone?”

                            än?  
                    Gä      /////  
Why?                /////   /////  
/////  Is           /////   /////  
/////  /////   it   /////   /////  
/////  /////  ///   /////   /////  

重音的两个原因:新音信(new
information)、观点(opinion)、相比(contrast)、can’t

Four Main Reasons for Intonation

  1. 新信息
    It sounds like rain.
    Rain is the new information.
  2. 观点
    It sounds like rain, but I don’t think it is.
  3. 对比
    He likes rain, but he hates snow.
  4. Can’t
    It can’t rain when there’re no clouds.

1. New Information

It sounds like rain.

V Make rain very musical and put it on two notes: ray-ayn.
Duh-duh-duh ray-ayn / It sounds like ray-ayn.

2. Opinion

It sounds like rain, but I don’t think it is.

In this case, intonation makes the meaning the opposite of what the
words say: *It looks like a diamond, but I think it’s a zircon. It
smells like

Chanel, but at that price, it’s a knock-off. It feels like… It tastes
like…* These examples all give the impression that you mean the
opposite

of what your senses tell you.

V Practice the intonation difference between new information and
opinion:
It sounds like rain. (It’s rain.) It sounds like rain, (but it’s
not.)

3. Contrast

He likes rain, but he hates snow.
Like and hate are contrasted and are the stronger words in the
sentence.

4. Can’t

It can’t rain when there’re no clouds.


Chapter 2. Word Connections

Words are connected in four main situations:

Liaison Rule 1 : Consonant / Vowel

Words are connected when a word ends in a consonant sound and the next
word starts with a vowel sound, including the semivowels W, Y, and R.

My name is...                         [my nay●miz]  
because I've                          [b'k'zäiv]  
pick up on the American intonation    [pi●kə pän the(y)əmer'kə ninətənashən]  

Liaison Rule 2: Consonant / Consonant

Words are connected when a word ends in a consonant sound and the next
word starts with a consonant that is in a similar position.

I just didn't get the chance.   [I·jusdidn't·ge(t)the·chance.]  
I've been late twice.           [I'vbinla(t)twice.]  

Liaison Rule 3: Vowel / Vowel

When a word ending in a vowel sound is next to one beginning with a
vowel sound, they are connected with a glide between the two vowels. A
glide

is either a slight [y] sound or a slight [w] sound. How do you know
which one to use? This will take care of itself—the position your lips
are

in will dictate either [y] or [w].

Go away.                      Go(w)away.  
I also need the other one.    I(y)also need thee(y)other one.  

Liaison Rule 4: T, D, S, or Z + Y

When the letter or sound of T, D, S, or Z is followed by a word that
starts with Y, or its sound, both sounds are connected. These letters
and sounds

connect not only with Y, but they do so as well with the initial
unwritten [y].


~~ 待更新 ~~

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